AI News, AI system discovers powerful new antibiotic to tackle superbugs artificial intelligence

The four problems with Europe’s vision of AI

Europe has unveiled a set of strict rules and safeguards for the development and use of artificial intelligence, as it tries to make an ethical approach to the new technology into a competitive advantage over China and the US.

But experts on both sides of the debate pointed to a range of problems with the new AI strategy, with some arguing that the rules will stifle innovation and others suggesting the framework should do more to protect the public from invasive technology such as facial recognition cameras.

Artificial intelligence systems could also be subjected to liability and certification checks of the underlying algorithms and the data used in the development of the technology, under the new plans.

The commission’s white paper introduced new obligations for data quality, and suggested that European AI algorithms should be based on European data.

The cost of retraining algorithms created elsewhere in the world on EU data may again be prohibitive for smaller companies, and could also drive away talent, others warned.

For example, the use of AI systems by online employment firms like LinkedIn, which we know can sometimes structurally exclude women from seeing job postings,”

“We know . . . that these AI systems can have really detrimental effects on the marginalised, so the fact that it was largely encouraging of these uses and [the risks] weren’t mentioned was really disappointing.”

Earlier drafts of the EU’s strategy suggested technologies that pose a risk to privacy, in particular the use of facial recognition in public places, should be carefully assessed and even banned until more is known about their usefulness and their impact on society.

A Compound, Discovered By Artificial Intelligence, May Help Reinvigorate A Slowing Antibiotic Field

An algorithm designed by researchers at MIT has found a compound that could lead to development of a potentially powerful new antibiotic, something that has been scarce in the pharmaceutical industry of late.

The compound, which scientists named Halicin after the murderous computer from the classic movie '2001: A Space Odyssey,' showed a broad ability to kill bacteria, raising hopes that artificial intelligence might boost a lagging antibiotic development field.

Pharmaceutical companies have been retreating from antibiotic development because it’s less profitable than other drugs, says James Collins, a bioengineering professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

“Given it costs as much to make an antibiotic as it does a drug for another indication, it makes business sense to focus on drugs with the longer runway.'

“And it gives us an ability to discover molecules with novel chemistries against the most difficult-to-treat infections.” The algorithm uses machine learning, a type of artificial intelligence that analyzes large sets of data for patterns and other types of information.

The researchers' algorithm analyzed millions of different molecules and chemicals as part of the search for a potential new antibiotic.

Collins: We asked the model to predict which molecules out of a database would have antibacterial activity – but didn’t resemble existing antibiotics.

Collins: The drug works by disrupting the membrane of bacteria and the flow of protons [positively charged particles] across the membrane.

And in mice it effectively killed Acinobacter baumannii, which causes a very nasty skin infection and is at the top of the WHO’s list of deadly pathogens for which new antibiotics are needed.

We think it has great potential as a very potent antibiotic, one that could be used to address a number of difficult to treat conditions right now.

I think the study shows the power of harnessing artificial intelligence to address the antibiotic resistance crisis.

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