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Artificial intelligence in healthcare

Artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is the use of complex algorithms and software to emulate human cognition in the analysis of complicated medical data.

What distinguishes AI technology from traditional technologies in health care is the ability to gain information, process it and give a well-defined output to the end-user.

AI algorithms behave differently from humans in two ways: (1) algorithms are literal: if you set a goal, the algorithm can't adjust itself and only understand what it has been told explicitly, (2) and algorithms are black boxes;

AI programs have been developed and applied to practices such as diagnosis processes, treatment protocol development, drug development, personalized medicine, and patient monitoring and care.

to support operational initiatives that increase cost saving, improve patient satisfaction, and satisfy their staffing and workforce needs.[8]

that help healthcare managers improve business operations through increasing utilization, decreasing patient boarding, reducing length of stay and optimizing staffing levels.[9]

During this time, there was a recognition by researchers and developers that AI systems in healthcare must be designed to accommodate the absence of perfect data and build on the expertise of physicians.[14]

The ability to interpret imaging results with radiology may aid clinicians in detecting a minute change in an image that a clinician might accidentally miss.

A study at Stanford created an algorithm that could detect pneumonia at that specific site, in those patients involved, with a better average F1 metric (a statistical metric based on accuracy and recall), than the radiologists involved in that trial.[25]

The emergence of AI technology in radiology is perceived as a threat by some specialists, as the technology can achieve improvements in certain statistical metrics in isolated cases, as opposed to specialists.[26][27]

Recent advances have suggested the use of AI to describe and evaluate the outcome of maxillo-facial surgery or the assessment of cleft palate therapy in regard to facial attractiveness or age appearance.[28][29]

In 2018, a paper published in the journal Annals of Oncology mentioned that skin cancer could be detected more accurately by an artificial intelligence system (which used a deep learning convolutional neural network) than by dermatologists.

On average, the human dermatologists accurately detected 86.6% of skin cancers from the images, compared to 95% for the CNN machine.[30]

Due to such a high mortality rate being associated with these diseases there have been efforts to integrate various methods in helping get accurate diagnosis’.

One study conducted by the Centerstone research institute found that predictive modeling of EHR data has achieved 70–72% accuracy in predicting individualized treatment response at baseline.[citation needed]

The subsequent motive of large based health companies merging with other health companies, allow for greater health data accessibility.[35]

A second project with the NHS involves analysis of medical images collected from NHS patients to develop computer vision algorithms to detect cancerous tissues.[45]

Intel's venture capital arm Intel Capital recently invested in startup Lumiata which uses AI to identify at-risk patients and develop care options.[46]

team associated with the University of Arizona and backed by BPU Holdings began collaborating on a practical tool to monitor anxiety and delirium in hospital patients, particularly those with Dementia.[56]

The AI utilized in the new technology – Senior's Virtual Assistant – goes a step beyond and is programmed to simulate and understand human emotions (artificial emotional intelligence).[57]

Doctors working on the project have suggested that in addition to judging emotional states, the application can be used to provide companionship to patients in the form of small talk, soothing music, and even lighting adjustments to control anxiety.

Virtual nursing assistants are predicted to become more common and these will use AI to answer patient's questions and help reduce unnecessary hospital visits.

Overall, as Quan-Haase (2018) says, technology “extends to the accomplishment of societal goals, including higher levels of security, better means of communication over time and space, improved health care, and increased autonomy” (p. 43).

While research on the use of AI in healthcare aims to validate its efficacy in improving patient outcomes before its broader adoption, its use may nonetheless introduce several new types of risk to patients and healthcare providers, such as algorithmic bias, Do not resuscitate implications, and other machine morality issues.

We already have some scientists who know artificial intelligence and machine learning, but we want complementary people who can look forward and see how this technology will evolve.”[67]

As of November 2018, eight use cases are being benchmarked, including assessing breast cancer risk from histopathological imagery, guiding anti-venom selection from snake images, and diagnosing skin lesions.[69][70]

Webinar Wrap-up: How to Build a Career in AI and Machine Learning

AI is getting even more traction lately because of recent innovations that have made headlines, Alexa’s unexpected laughing notwithstanding.

But AI has been a sound career choice for a while now because of the growing adoption of the technology across industries and the need for trained professionals to do the jobs created by this growth.

However, it is also forecasted that this technology will wipe outover 1.7 million jobs, resulting in about half a million new jobs worldwide.

It’s software that learns similar to how humans learn, mimicking human learning so it can take over some of our jobs for us and do other jobs better and faster than we humans ever could.

Consumers use AI daily to find their destinations using navigation and ride-sharing apps, as smart home devices or personal assistants, or for streaming services.

Van Loon described the three stages of AI and machine learning development as follow: In addition to the development of machine learning that leads to new capabilities, we have subsets within the domain of machine learning, each of which offers a potential area of specialization for those interested in a career in AI.

He also points out that various industries require different skill sets, but all working in AI should have excellent communication skills before addressing the math and computing skills needed.

To cross that bridge from data scientist to machine learning, you should know how to prepare data, as well as have good communication skills and business knowledge, and be proficient at model building and visualization.

With the innovation we will see in the coming years, we can’t even imagine what will develop, but we do know we already have a shortage of trained AI and machine learning professionals.

Keeping the innate need in mind, Simplilearn has launched the Post Graduate Program in AI and Machine Learning with Purdue University in collaboration with IBM that will help you gain expertise in various industry skills and technologies from Python, NLP, speech recognition, to advanced deep learning.

The Artificial Intelligence Career Guide will give you insights into the most trending technologies, the top companies that are hiring, the skills required to jumpstart your career in the thriving field of AI, and offers you a personalized roadmap to becoming a successful AI expert.

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