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Deepfake

Deepfake (a portmanteau of 'deep learning' and 'fake'[1]) is a technique for human image synthesis based on artificial intelligence.

It is used to combine and superimpose existing images and videos onto source images or videos using a machine learning technique called a 'generative adversarial network' (GAN).[2]

Such fake videos can be created to, for example, show a person performing sexual acts they never took part in, or can be used to alter the words or gestures a politician uses to make it look like that person said something they never did.

Academic research related to deepfakes lies predominantly within the field of computer vision, a subfield of computer science often grounded in artificial intelligence that focuses on computer processing of digital images and videos.

An early landmark project was the Video Rewrite program, published in 1997, which modified existing video footage of a person speaking to depict that person mouthing the words contained in a different audio track.[6]

It was the first system to fully automate this kind of facial reanimation, and it did so using machine learning techniques to make connections between the sounds produced by a video’s subject and the shape of their face.

The project lists as a main research contribution the first method for reenacting facial expressions in real time using a camera that does not capture depth, making it possible for the technique to be performed using common consumer cameras.

In February 2018, r/deepfakes was banned by Reddit for sharing involuntary pornography, and other websites have also banned the use of deepfakes for involuntary pornography, including the social media platform Twitter and the pornography site Pornhub.[12] Other

online communities remain, however, including Reddit communities that do not share pornography, such as r/SFWdeepfakes (short for 'safe for work deepfakes'), in which community members share deepfakes depicting celebrities, politicians, and others in non-pornographic scenarios.[13]

However, she also stated that she wouldn't attempt to remove any of her deepfakes, due to her belief that they don't affect her public image and that differing laws across countries and the nature of internet culture make any attempt to remove the deepfakes 'a lost cause';

she believes that while celebrities like herself are protected by their fame, deepfakes pose a grave threat to women of lesser prominence who could have their reputations damaged by depiction in involuntary deepfake pornography or revenge porn.[20]

The app uses an artificial neural network and the power of the graphics processor and three to four gigabytes of storage space to generate the fake video.

For detailed information, the program needs a lot of visual material from the person to be inserted in order to learn which image aspects have to be exchanged, using the deep learning algorithm based on the video sequences and images.

Deepfakes Expose Societal Dangers of AI, Machine Learning

As we head into the next presidential election campaign season, you'll want to beware of the potential dangers that fake online videos bring through the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML).

Using AI software, people can create deepfake (short for 'deep learning and fake') videos in which ML algorithms are used to perform a face swap to create the illusion that someone either said something that they didn't say or are someone they're not.

Not only can deepfake videos unfairly influence an election with false messages, but they can bring personal embarrassment or cause misleading brand messages if, say, they show a CEO announcing a product launch or an acquisition that actually didn't happen.

GANs consist of a generator, which creates a new set of data like a fake video, and a discriminator, which uses an ML algorithm to synthesize and compare data from the real video.

To make their deepfake video, Grobman and Fralick used a tool a Reddit user developed called FakeApp, which employs ML algorithms and photos to swap faces on videos.

Hacker-created deepfake videos have the potential to cause many problems—everything from government officials spreading false misinformation to celebrities getting embarrassed from being in videos they really weren't in to companies damaging competitors' stock market standings.

'With deepfakes, if you know what you're doing and you know who to target, you can really come up with a [very] convincing video to cause a lot of damage to a brand,' said Dr. Chase Cunningham, Principal Analyst at Forrester Research.

Cunningham noted that, if a major car manufacturer's CEO said in a bogus video that the company would no longer manufacture gas-powered vehicles and then spread that message on Twitter or LinkedIn in that video, then that action could easily damage a brand.

'So you can imagine if you can get a video that runs longer than 37 seconds, you can get people to make a decision based on whether [the video is] factual or not.

Since social media is a vulnerable place where deepfake videos can go viral, social media sites are actively working to combat the threat of deepfakes.

That's why we're investing in new technical solutions, learning from academic research, and working with others in the industry to understand deepfakes and other forms of manipulated media.'

In fact, while politics can expose the real dangers of deepfake videos, the entertainment industry often just shows deepfake videos' lighter side.

Again, if the deepfake videos are used for a satirical or humorous purpose or simply as entertainment, then social media platforms and even movie production houses permit or use them.

To try to stop the spread of deepfake videos, AI Foundation, a nonprofit organization that's focused on human and AI interaction, offers software called 'Reality Defender' to spot fake content.

Another strategy is to keep the concept of Zero Trust in mind, which means 'never trust, always verify'—a cybersecurity motto that means IT professionals should confirm all users are legitimate before granting access privileges.

So, keep a skeptical eye on the political videos you watch as we head into the next election season, and don't trust all of the videos featuring corporate leaders.

Deepfake Salvador Dalí Is Both Convincing and Terrifying

Earlier this year, on the thirtieth anniversary of his death, the Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida, released a video teasing a new installation that would use artificial intelligence to reanimate the Spanish surrealist.

a way to manipulate video so it looks like a real person is saying or doing basically whatever you want.

But there's also something profoundly upsetting about watching video of a man talk about how his thoughts on death have changed since he died in 1989.

Why the Scariest Thing About Horror Movies is Us

“The horror genre, it changes over time, it’s never static, it’s always fluctuating and shifting, because the things that we’re afraid of change,” said James Kendrick, associate professor of film at Baylor University and a horror aficionado.

“It’s an interesting metaphor for a time when they have to deal with the trauma of, ‘If I have sex, could this be potentially deadly now?'” Horror movies of the ’70s and ’80s often centered around young people who were left to fend for themselves, their ineffective parents nowhere to be found.

“It’s really up to the kids to solve the problems.” And while “kids of every generation are always blaming their parents for the problems of the world,” “it’s fascinating to see so many of the horror movies of the time take this sort of approach.” Think “The Lost Boys” and the original “It.” Even more literal, environmental issues reared their head in ’70s horror films, during a time when people were understanding the impact humans have had on the earth.

“Lo and behold, you get all these environmental horror films, revenge-of-nature horror films,” like “Frogs” and “Night of the Lepus.” (Yes, giant, mutant bunnies.) “You had these marriages of social and cultural fears that would have corollaries in horror movies not too long after that.” What about today’s horror films?

And while “the genre is engaging with a whole bunch of horror ideas” right now, “it seems like a lot of them have been more interpersonal, less about large-scale issues.” The most glaring examples are Jordan Peele’s “Us” and “Get Out.” Horror has “been a very very conspicuously white genre,” Donovan said.

These two horror stories are “told by a black filmmaker and (‘Get Out’ especially is) dealing with the issue of race, (a) current social concern that we’re grappling with.” “It’s speaking to what we think or what we wanted to think was a post-racial era,” he said.

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