AI News, A Primer on Deep Learning

A Primer on Deep Learning

The game asks its players the following question: given a set of 2-second sound clips from buoys in the ocean, can you classify each sound clip as having a call from a North Atlantic right whale or not?The practical application of the competition is that if we can detect where the whales are migrating by picking up their calls, we can route shipping traffic to avoid them, a positive both for effective shipping and whale preservation.

In a post-competition interview competition's winners notedthe value of focusing on feature generation, also called feature engineering.

A simple example of an engineered feature would involve subtracting two columns and including this new number as an additional descriptor of your data.

In the case of the whales, the winning team represented each sound clip in its spectrogram form and built features based on how well the spectrogram matched some example templates.

Rather than using data science experience, intuition, and trial-and-error, unsupervised feature learning techniques spend computational time automatically developing new ways of representing the data.

The takeaway is that deep learning excels in tasks where the basic unit, a single pixel, a single frequency, or a single word has very little meaning in and of itself, but the combination of such units has a useful meaning.

When presented with 60,000 digits a neural network can learn that it is useful to look for loops and lines when trying to classify which digit it is looking at.

Primate brains do a similar thing in the visual cortex, so the hope was that using more layers in a neural network could allow it to learn better models.

Finally in 2006 three separate groups developed ways of overcoming the difficulties that many in the machine learning world encountered while trying to train deep neural networks.The leaders of these three groups are the fathers of the age of deep learning.

Using different techniques, each of these three groups was able to get these early layers to learn useful representations, which led to much more powerful neural networks.

Now that this problem has been fixed, we ask, what is it that these neural networks learn?This paperillustrates what a deep neural network is capable of learning, and I've included the above picture to make things clearer.

This application of deep neural networks has seen models that successfully learn useful representations of imagery, audio, written language, and even molecular activity.

The key takeaway is that the breakthroughs in 2006 have enabled deep neural networks that are able automatically to learn rich representations of data.

This unsupervised feature learning is proving extremely helpful in domains where individual data points are not very useful but many individual points taken together convey quite a bit of information.

Deep learning

Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.

Deep learning architectures such as deep neural networks, deep belief networks and recurrent neural networks have been applied to fields including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, audio recognition, social network filtering, machine translation, bioinformatics, drug design and board game programs, where they have produced results comparable to and in some cases superior to human experts.[4][5][6]

Deep learning models are vaguely inspired by information processing and communication patterns in biological nervous systems yet have various differences from the structural and functional properties of biological brains, which make them incompatible with neuroscience evidences.[7][8][9]

Most modern deep learning models are based on an artificial neural network, although they can also include propositional formulas or latent variables organized layer-wise in deep generative models such as the nodes in Deep Belief Networks and Deep Boltzmann Machines.[11]

No universally agreed upon threshold of depth divides shallow learning from deep learning, but most researchers agree that deep learning involves CAP depth >

For supervised learning tasks, deep learning methods obviate feature engineering, by translating the data into compact intermediate representations akin to principal components, and derive layered structures that remove redundancy in representation.

The universal approximation theorem concerns the capacity of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer of finite size to approximate continuous functions.[15][16][17][18][19]

By 1991 such systems were used for recognizing isolated 2-D hand-written digits, while recognizing 3-D objects was done by matching 2-D images with a handcrafted 3-D object model.

But while Neocognitron required a human programmer to hand-merge features, Cresceptron learned an open number of features in each layer without supervision, where each feature is represented by a convolution kernel.

In 1994, André de Carvalho, together with Mike Fairhurst and David Bisset, published experimental results of a multi-layer boolean neural network, also known as a weightless neural network, composed of a 3-layers self-organising feature extraction neural network module (SOFT) followed by a multi-layer classification neural network module (GSN), which were independently trained.

In 1995, Brendan Frey demonstrated that it was possible to train (over two days) a network containing six fully connected layers and several hundred hidden units using the wake-sleep algorithm, co-developed with Peter Dayan and Hinton.[39]

Simpler models that use task-specific handcrafted features such as Gabor filters and support vector machines (SVMs) were a popular choice in the 1990s and 2000s, because of ANNs' computational cost and a lack of understanding of how the brain wires its biological networks.

These methods never outperformed non-uniform internal-handcrafting Gaussian mixture model/Hidden Markov model (GMM-HMM) technology based on generative models of speech trained discriminatively.[45]

The principle of elevating 'raw' features over hand-crafted optimization was first explored successfully in the architecture of deep autoencoder on the 'raw' spectrogram or linear filter-bank features in the late 1990s,[48]

Many aspects of speech recognition were taken over by a deep learning method called long short-term memory (LSTM), a recurrent neural network published by Hochreiter and Schmidhuber in 1997.[50]

showed how a many-layered feedforward neural network could be effectively pre-trained one layer at a time, treating each layer in turn as an unsupervised restricted Boltzmann machine, then fine-tuning it using supervised backpropagation.[58]

The impact of deep learning in industry began in the early 2000s, when CNNs already processed an estimated 10% to 20% of all the checks written in the US, according to Yann LeCun.[67]

was motivated by the limitations of deep generative models of speech, and the possibility that given more capable hardware and large-scale data sets that deep neural nets (DNN) might become practical.

However, it was discovered that replacing pre-training with large amounts of training data for straightforward backpropagation when using DNNs with large, context-dependent output layers produced error rates dramatically lower than then-state-of-the-art Gaussian mixture model (GMM)/Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and also than more-advanced generative model-based systems.[59][70]

offering technical insights into how to integrate deep learning into the existing highly efficient, run-time speech decoding system deployed by all major speech recognition systems.[10][72][73]

In 2010, researchers extended deep learning from TIMIT to large vocabulary speech recognition, by adopting large output layers of the DNN based on context-dependent HMM states constructed by decision trees.[75][76][77][72]

In 2009, Nvidia was involved in what was called the “big bang” of deep learning, “as deep-learning neural networks were trained with Nvidia graphics processing units (GPUs).”[78]

In 2014, Hochreiter's group used deep learning to detect off-target and toxic effects of environmental chemicals in nutrients, household products and drugs and won the 'Tox21 Data Challenge' of NIH, FDA and NCATS.[87][88][89]

Although CNNs trained by backpropagation had been around for decades, and GPU implementations of NNs for years, including CNNs, fast implementations of CNNs with max-pooling on GPUs in the style of Ciresan and colleagues were needed to progress on computer vision.[80][81][34][90][2]

In November 2012, Ciresan et al.'s system also won the ICPR contest on analysis of large medical images for cancer detection, and in the following year also the MICCAI Grand Challenge on the same topic.[92]

In 2013 and 2014, the error rate on the ImageNet task using deep learning was further reduced, following a similar trend in large-scale speech recognition.

For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as 'cat' or 'no cat' and using the analytic results to identify cats in other images.

Over time, attention focused on matching specific mental abilities, leading to deviations from biology such as backpropagation, or passing information in the reverse direction and adjusting the network to reflect that information.

Neural networks have been used on a variety of tasks, including computer vision, speech recognition, machine translation, social network filtering, playing board and video games and medical diagnosis.

Despite this number being several order of magnitude less than the number of neurons on a human brain, these networks can perform many tasks at a level beyond that of humans (e.g., recognizing faces, playing 'Go'[99]

The user can review the results and select which probabilities the network should display (above a certain threshold, etc.) and return the proposed label.

The extra layers enable composition of features from lower layers, potentially modeling complex data with fewer units than a similarly performing shallow network.[11]

The training process can be guaranteed to converge in one step with a new batch of data, and the computational complexity of the training algorithm is linear with respect to the number of neurons involved.[115][116]

that involve multi-second intervals containing speech events separated by thousands of discrete time steps, where one time step corresponds to about 10 ms.

All major commercial speech recognition systems (e.g., Microsoft Cortana, Xbox, Skype Translator, Amazon Alexa, Google Now, Apple Siri, Baidu and iFlyTek voice search, and a range of Nuance speech products, etc.) are based on deep learning.[10][122][123][124]

DNNs have proven themselves capable, for example, of a) identifying the style period of a given painting, b) 'capturing' the style of a given painting and applying it in a visually pleasing manner to an arbitrary photograph, and c) generating striking imagery based on random visual input fields.[128][129]

Word embedding, such as word2vec, can be thought of as a representational layer in a deep learning architecture that transforms an atomic word into a positional representation of the word relative to other words in the dataset;

Finding the appropriate mobile audience for mobile advertising is always challenging, since many data points must be considered and assimilated before a target segment can be created and used in ad serving by any ad server.[161][162]

'Deep anti-money laundering detection system can spot and recognize relationships and similarities between data and, further down the road, learn to detect anomalies or classify and predict specific events'.

Deep learning is closely related to a class of theories of brain development (specifically, neocortical development) proposed by cognitive neuroscientists in the early 1990s.[166][167][168][169]

These developmental models share the property that various proposed learning dynamics in the brain (e.g., a wave of nerve growth factor) support the self-organization somewhat analogous to the neural networks utilized in deep learning models.

Like the neocortex, neural networks employ a hierarchy of layered filters in which each layer considers information from a prior layer (or the operating environment), and then passes its output (and possibly the original input), to other layers.

Other researchers have argued that unsupervised forms of deep learning, such as those based on hierarchical generative models and deep belief networks, may be closer to biological reality.[173][174]

researchers at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) developed a machine learning framework called Training an Agent Manually via Evaluative Reinforcement, or TAMER, which proposed new methods for robots or computer programs to learn how to perform tasks by interacting with a human instructor.[165]

Such techniques lack ways of representing causal relationships (...) have no obvious ways of performing logical inferences, and they are also still a long way from integrating abstract knowledge, such as information about what objects are, what they are for, and how they are typically used.

systems, like Watson (...) use techniques like deep learning as just one element in a very complicated ensemble of techniques, ranging from the statistical technique of Bayesian inference to deductive reasoning.'[190]

As an alternative to this emphasis on the limits of deep learning, one author speculated that it might be possible to train a machine vision stack to perform the sophisticated task of discriminating between 'old master' and amateur figure drawings, and hypothesized that such a sensitivity might represent the rudiments of a non-trivial machine empathy.[191]

In further reference to the idea that artistic sensitivity might inhere within relatively low levels of the cognitive hierarchy, a published series of graphic representations of the internal states of deep (20-30 layers) neural networks attempting to discern within essentially random data the images on which they were trained[193]

Learning a grammar (visual or linguistic) from training data would be equivalent to restricting the system to commonsense reasoning that operates on concepts in terms of grammatical production rules and is a basic goal of both human language acquisition[199]

Such a manipulation is termed an “adversarial attack.” In 2016 researchers used one ANN to doctor images in trial and error fashion, identify another's focal points and thereby generate images that deceived it.

Another group showed that certain psychedelic spectacles could fool a facial recognition system into thinking ordinary people were celebrities, potentially allowing one person to impersonate another.

ANNs can however be further trained to detect attempts at deception, potentially leading attackers and defenders into an arms race similar to the kind that already defines the malware defense industry.

ANNs have been trained to defeat ANN-based anti-malware software by repeatedly attacking a defense with malware that was continually altered by a genetic algorithm until it tricked the anti-malware while retaining its ability to damage the target.[201]

A Beginner's Guide to Neural Networks and Deep Learning

Contents Neural networks are a set of algorithms, modeled loosely after the human brain, that are designed to recognize patterns.

so you can think of deep neural networks as components of larger machine-learning applications involving algorithms for reinforcement learning, classification and regression.) What kind of problems does deep learning solve, and more importantly, can it solve yours?

It is known as a “universal approximator”, because it can learn to approximate an unknown function f(x) = y between any input x and any output y, assuming they are related at all (by correlation or causation, for example).

In the process of learning, a neural network finds the right f, or the correct manner of transforming x into y, whether that be f(x) = 3x + 12 or f(x) = 9x - 0.1.

A node combines input from the data with a set of coefficients, or weights, that either amplify or dampen that input, thereby assigning significance to inputs for the task the algorithm is trying to learn.

(For example, which input is most helpful is classifying data without error?) These input-weight products are summed and the sum is passed through a node’s so-called activation function, to determine whether and to what extent that signal progresses further through the network to affect the ultimate outcome, say, an act of classification.

Therefore, one of the problems deep learning solves best is in processing and clustering the world’s raw, unlabeled media, discerning similarities and anomalies in data that no human has organized in a relational database or ever put a name to.

For example, deep learning can take a million images, and cluster them according to their similarities: cats in one corner, ice breakers in another, and in a third all the photos of your grandmother.

Given that feature extraction is a task that can take teams of data scientists years to accomplish, deep learning is a way to circumvent the chokepoint of limited experts.

When training on unlabeled data, each node layer in a deep network learns features automatically by repeatedly trying to reconstruct the input from which it draws its samples, attempting to minimize the difference between the network’s guesses and the probability distribution of the input data itself.

In the process, these networks learn to recognize correlations between certain relevant features and optimal results – they draw connections between feature signals and what those features represent, whether it be a full reconstruction, or with labeled data.

(Bad algorithms trained on lots of data can outperform good algorithms trained on very little.) Deep learning’s ability to process and learn from huge quantities of unlabeled data give it a distinct advantage over previous algorithms.

The starting line for the race is the state in which our weights are initialized, and the finish line is the state of those parameters when they are capable of producing accurate classifications and predictions.

collection of weights, whether they are in their start or end state, is also called a model, because it is an attempt to model data’s relationship to ground-truth labels, to grasp the data’s structure.

(You can think of a neural network as a miniature enactment of the scientific method, testing hypotheses and trying again – only it is the scientific method with a blindfold on.) Here is a simple explanation of what happens during learning with a feedforward neural network, the simplest architecture to explain.

The neural then takes its guess and compares it to a ground-truth about the data, effectively asking an expert “Did I get this right?” The difference between the network’s guess and the ground truth is its error.

The three pseudo-mathematical formulas above account for the three key functions of neural networks: scoring input, calculating loss and applying an update to the model – to begin the three-step process over again.

In its simplest form, linear regression is expressed as where Y_hat is the estimated output, X is the input, b is the slope and a is the intercept of a line on the vertical axis of a two-dimensional graph.

It’s typically expressed like this: (To extend the crop example above, you might add the amount of sunlight and rainfall in a growing season to the fertilizer variable, with all three affecting Y_hat.) Now, that form of multiple linear regression is happening at every node of a neural network.

The output of all nodes, each squashed into an s-shaped space between 0 and 1, is then passed as input to the next layer in a feed forward neural network, and so on until the signal reaches the final layer of the net, where decisions are made.

The name for one commonly used optimization function that adjusts weights according to the error they caused is called “gradient descent.” Gradient is another word for slope, and slope, in its typical form on an x-y graph, represents how two variables relate to each other: rise over run, the change in money over the change in time, etc.

the signal of the weight passes through activations and sums over several layers, so we use the chain rule of calculus to march back through the networks activations and outputs and finally arrive at the weight in question, and its relationship to overall error.

That is, given two variables, Error and weight, that are mediated by a third variable, activation, through which the weight is passed, you can calculate how a change in weight affects a change in Error by first calculating how a change in activation affects a change in Error, and how a change in weight affects a change in activation.

(We’re 120% sure of that.) As the input x that triggers a label grows, the expression e to the x shrinks toward zero, leaving us with the fraction 1/1, or 100%, which means we approach (without ever quite reaching) absolute certainty that the label applies.

Input that correlates negatively with your output will have its value flipped by the negative sign on e’s exponent, and as that negative signal grows, the quantity e to the x becomes larger, pushing the entire fraction ever closer to zero.

You can set different thresholds as you prefer – a low threshold will increase the number of false positives, and a higher one will increase the number of false negatives – depending on which side you would like to err.

That said, gradient descent is not recombining every weight with every other to find the best match – its method of pathfinding shrinks the relevant weight space, and therefore the number of updates and required computation, by many orders of magnitude.

What Is Deep Learning?

With tools and functions for managing large data sets, MATLAB also offers specialized toolboxes for working with machine learning, neural networks, computer vision, and automated driving.

In addition, MATLAB enables domain experts to do deep learning – instead of handing the task over to data scientists who may not know your industry or application.

MATLAB enables users to interactively label objects within images and can automate ground truth labeling within videos for training and testing deep learning models.

It offers tools and functions for deep learning, and also for a range of domains that feed into deep learning algorithms, such as signal processing, computer vision, and data analytics.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>Predicting human protein function with multi-task deep neural networks

The biological roles of the vast majority of known amino acid sequences remain partly or completely unknown: the UniProtKB database [1] currently stores more than 60 million sequences, but UniProt-GOA [2] lists only about 600 thousand experimentally-supported functional annotations in the form of Gene Ontology (GO) terms [3].

This information is far from uniformly spread across protein sequences, so elucidating their molecular activities, their whereabouts, their biological partners, and the environmental conditions enabling them has been increasingly dependent on computational methods that mostly perform annotation transfers from sequence [4].

Because naive or iterative application of these methods can generate uncontrolled error propagation in databases [5], curators nowadays rely on complementing transfers from orthologous proteins and from domain family assignments with mappings between controlled vocabularies and GO [2].

Many research groups have tested this hypothesis with success by examining heterogeneous data sources such as protein sequences [6–9], genomic information [10,11], gene expression profiles [12], and functional association networks [13], using neural networks (NN) [14], support vector machines (SVM) [7–9] and random forests [15].

One of the major challenges supervised learning methods face in protein function prediction is the structured and multi-label nature of the problem, because the biological roles are described by sets of terms from the hierarchically organised GO domains.

The concept of DNN appeared a few decades ago, but remained impractical until Hinton and colleagues showed that layer-wise pretraining techniques allow deep networks to learn better feature representations and leading to improved classification performance[22].

Multi-task deep neural networks are a particular type of architectures which consist of initial shared layers followed by as many independent modules (made up of individual output neurons possibly downstream of additional hidden layers) as the number of target labels (aka tasks).

This modelling approach has been previously applied to virtual screening [30], toxicity prediction [31] and prediction of protein biophysical features including secondary structure, solvent accessibility, transmembrane segments and signal peptides [32].

This flexibility may lead to our future work to improve the performance of protein function prediction further by connecting MTDNN with many different biological data sources, such as graph embedding features from protein-protein interaction networks, or gene expression data etc.

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Supervised neural networks are trained to produce desired outputs in response to sample inputs, making them particularly well suited for modeling and controlling dynamic systems, classifying noisy data, and predicting future events.

Neural Network Toolbox includes four types of supervised networks: feedforward, radial basis, dynamic, and learning vector quantization.

Supported feedforward networks include feedforward backpropagation, cascade-forward backpropagation, feedforward input-delay backpropagation, linear, and perceptron networks.

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