AI News, 2005 artificial intelligence

Malek Mouhoub On



Publications sélectionnées depuis 2005 [CI2S - Conception Intégrée de Systèmes et Supervision]

El Najjar, NAzih Moubayed, “Prediction optimization method for multi-fault detection enhancement: application to GNSS positioning”.

Fault tolerant multi-sensor fusion based on the information gain.

El Najjar, Denis Pomorski, Fault tolerant multi-sensor fusion based on the information gain“, 13th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis, at Lille- France 2016

El Najjar, “An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme for two linked 2WD mobile robots”, 13th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis, At Lille - France 2016.

Pomorski , “ Fault Detection and Exclusion method for a tightly coupled localization system”, In Proc.

El Najjar and Denis Pomorski , “ Fault tolerant fusion approach based on information theory applied on GNSS localization” , In proc.

of 18th international conference on information Fusion , Fusion 2015, Washington DC;

MOUBAYED , ” Fault detection and exclusion of cycle slips for carrier-phase in GNSS positionning”, In proc.

of 18th international conference on information Fusion , Fusion 2015, Washington DC;

MOUBAYED “ Fault detection and exclusion for GNSS measurements using observations projection on information space” The fifth International Conference in Digital Information and Communication Technology and its Application - DICTAP2015;

Pomorski , “ Fast multi fault detection &

exclusion approach for GNSS integrity monitoring”, 17th international conference on information Fusion , Fusion 2014;

Pomorski, “Multi-sensor data fusion based on information theory.

Application to GNSS positionning and integrity monitoring” In Proc of IEEE Fusion 201215th International Conference in Information fusion, Singapore, on July 2012]

Pomorski, “Multi-sensor data fusion based on information theory.

Application to GNSS positionning and integrity monitoring” In Proc of IEEE Fusion 201215th International Conference in Information fusion, Singapore, on July 2012

“Vehicle geo-localization based on IMM-UKF data fusion using a GPS receiver, a video camera, and 3D city model ” IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Baden-Baden, Germany, 2011.

El Najjar, Cindy Cappelle, Denis Pomorski, François Charpillet and Abdallah Deeb “A novel geo-localisation method using GPS, 3D-GIS and Laser scanner for intelligent vehicle navigation in urban areas”, 14th International Conference in Automation and Robotics - IEEE, June 22-26 2009.

“Virtual 3D city model for intelligent vehicle geo-localization”, IEEE France 9th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems Telecomunications, ITS-T’2009, pp.477-480, Lille, France, 20-22 Oct., 2009.

Charpillet, “ Multisensor data fusion for geolocalisation in urban areas”.

11th International Conference on Information and Fusion Cologne, Germany June 30 – July 03, 2008.

Pomorski “Obstacle detection and localization method based on 3D Model: Distance Validation with Ladar ”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation.

Charpillet, « Détection, suivi et géo-localisation d’obstacles à l’aide d’un modèle 3Dgéo-référencé, une caméra et un GPS : validation avec un lidar.

Charpillet “Localisation in urban environment using GPS and INS aided by monocular vision system and 3D geographical model”, Intelligent Vehicle Symposium IV2007 - IEEE, June 13-15, 2007.

Charpillet “Mise en correspondance d’images réelles avec un modèle 3D géographique pour la localisation terrestre”, TAIMA 2007, Tunisie.

Artificial Intelligence and Collusion

For an analysis of the general issue, it is useful to start with the points where there is little disagreement among commentators and to later focus on those where there is greater debate.

As Kaplow points out, the theory of repeated games – also called supergames – analyzes the structural requirements of a coordinated equilibrium “without regard to whether there was an old-fashioned cartel, pure interdependence, or some other manner of interaction or communication”.58 Another point of consensus is that of the perceived prevalence of mere interdependent behavior.

In addition, and a point where many other commentators agree,61 an injunction on tacit price coordination would in practice establish a public utility type of regulation in which oligopolists are mandated to price at, or just slightly above, marginal cost.62 Turner finds this impracticable because, among other reasons, marginal cost is either theoretically indeterminate – as in the case of joint products – or practically indeterminate.63 The author argues that “something more in the way of ‘agreement’ must be shown” with evidence of an actual agreement, prior understanding or at least prior communications.64 Page, also in support of a narrower prohibition, argues that a broader rule which focuses on mere interdependent behavior would yield too many false positives.

According to the author, “[even] if rivals can achieve noncompetitive outcomes by purely tacit collusion, it does not follow that the law should condemn this conduct” because the administrability of rules limits the ability of the law to cover every instance of harm.65 Page puts forth a standard that covers something more than completed verbal agreements in which exchanges of mutual assurances have occurred.

The author defines illicit concerted conduct as private communications, written or oral, in which competitive intention and reliance is disclosed.66 The rule does not require that firms mutually assure each other that they will keep the agreed-upon prices, only that they privately disclose their intention to stick to a certain price and their decision to do so based on their reliance on what they expect their competitors to do.67 In addition, in order to reduce the probability of false positives, the proposed standard requires that the defendants act consistently with their statements.68 Such a rule, according to the author, would be in accordance with economic theory because it would target the most stable forms of price agreements.69 In other words, Page argues that communications make oligopoly pricing more stable.

This point is related to the fact that in a repeated Bertrand game, depending on the firms’ discount rate of future profits, any price between the competitive and the monopoly one can be an equilibrium.70 Game theory does not formalize the role of communications – or make it one of its assumptions – when firms choose a price within this range.

Kaplow argues that the problem of choosing a focal price can be solved by a process of tacit coordination.71 Page, for his part, argues that communications could play a role in eliminating the uncertainty over which the focal price will be chosen.72 His point is persuasive to the extent that the fact that the theory of supergames has little to say about communications can rather be seen as a weakness.

The fact that in markets that could be considered ripe for tacit coordination there are instances where firms still risk liability and use overt communications is an indicator that oligopolists are not indifferent to their benefits.73 With his proposed standard, Page attempts to give more concrete content to Turner’s formulation that something in the way of an agreement needs to be proved.

Page suggests as a first approximation the existence of complex facilitating practices, which can only be achieved by overt communications and thus the existence of the former should be enough to infer the latter.74 If markets are prone to tacit coordination, then the marginal benefit of complex facilitating practices diminishes and firms would in theory avoid them due to the risk of liability.

Regarding equilibrium analysis, according to the author, game theory does not postulate that the steady-state price depends on whether firms have been able to communicate in a verbal or written manner.76 For theoretical purposes, such explicit exchanges could be considered cheap talk if the firms still have an incentive to deviate from the joint profit-maximizing price.

Such incentives do not hinge on whether there have been private communications.77 The author argues that if one wants to ground the regulation on economics, then one should look at our current understanding of the theory of repeated games.78 As Kaplow points out, the theory requires only that the firms know their payoffs and the likely reactions of their competitors when deciding which strategy to pursue.

This is because if one defines prohibited communications with a functional criterion – as opposed to a formal one – for example, as exchanges that enable successful collusion, then mere price signals would necessarily fall within the definition.82 Fixed definitions of what constitutes a prohibited form of communication are also problematic because of the high substitutability of forms of communication.83 An extreme example provided by Kaplow is that if what is prohibited is the private character of the exchange, then the only thing that firms need to do is to carry out a public press conference.

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