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India among top 20 countries in the Artificial Intelligence readiness ranking

India stands at #19 in the AI readiness ranking, that examines 194 countries worldwide, assessing their governance, infrastructure and data, skills and education, and government and public services to measure how well these countries are prepared to manage the potentially transformative impacts of AI.

“Given that we are on the cusp of seeing widespread AI implementation across a number of sectors, it is important that governments take notice of the findings to ensure that these inequalities do not become further entrenched as we enter the fourth industrial revolution', says Richard Stirling, co-founder and CEO of Oxford Insights.

It is one of the few governments that has created an AI Ethics Advisory Council as part of its AI strategy, to “assist the Government to develop ethics standards and reference governance frameworks, issue advisory guidelines, practical guidance and codes of practice for voluntary adoption by businesses'.

Singapore’s lead in grappling with issues of explainable, transparent, and fair algorithms, as well as in practically incorporating considerations for competition, privacy, and ethics into its policy and regulatory frameworks, will be a useful resource for other governments as they formulate their own AI strategies.

Artificial intelligence better than humans at spotting lung cancer

Lung cancer causes almost 160,000 deaths in the United States, according to the most recent estimates.

The condition is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S., and early detection is crucial for both stopping the spread of tumors and improving patient outcomes.

In fact, some scientists argue that CT scans are superior to X-rays for lung cancer detection, and research has shown that low-dose CT (LDCT) in particular has reduced lung cancer deaths by 20%.

In the current study, the AI provided an 'automated image evaluation system' that accurately predicted the malignancy of lung nodules without any human intervention.

When prior LDCT scans were not available, the AI 'model outperformed all six radiologists with absolute reductions of 11% in false positives and 5% in false negatives,' report Tse and colleagues.

'Radiologists generally examine hundreds of 2D images or 'slices' in a single CT scan, but this new machine learning system views the lungs in a huge, single 3D image,' Dr. Etemadi says.

'Not only can we better diagnose someone with cancer, we can also say if someone doesn't have cancer, potentially saving them from an invasive, costly, and risky lung biopsy,' concludes Dr. Etemadi.

Microsoft President Brad Smith Discusses The Ethics Of Artificial Intelligence

That's the question more and more people are asking about face recognition technology, software that's already in our phones and our social media feeds and many security systems.

The company makes facial recognition software and other tools that raise some ethical dilemmas, and he's our guest on this week's All Tech Considered.

SMITH: What facial recognition services enables somebody to do is look at your image on a camera and run it against a database and identify who you are.

Microsoft researchers have worked with a Chinese military-run university on AI research that some people fear could be used against China's minorities.

We were comfortable providing facial recognition within a prison because the sample size of people involved is actually relatively small.

And there was a societally beneficial goal, namely to actually help keep prisoners safe by knowing who was where and at what time.

But when you get to the bottom foundation for all artificial intelligence, advances in machine learning and the like, we believe that that's where there are real benefits for people able to work on advancing scientific knowledge more generally.

SMITH: First, we believe we have a responsibility - even a patriotic responsibility - to provide our technology to the people who defend our country and keep us safe.

We do want the U.S. military - every military and every country - to really address in a thoughtful way the new ethical and broader public policy issues that artificial intelligence is creating.

SMITH: We live in a country where the government has learned generally well how to manage and regulate complicated products, whether it's an automobile or an airplane or a pharmaceutical product or even a drug.

And to some degree, I think that people who work in business complain about regulation the way college students complain about the food in the cafeteria.

But a world in which important products are subject to the rule of law and rules of public safety, in my view, is better than a world where there are no rules in place.

Rather than complaining about what regulation may bring or even ridiculing people who may ask the wrong question or may ask the right question the wrong way - I think we're all far too quick to criticize even our legislators if they don't ask a question precisely right.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR.

Artificial intelligence system spots lung cancer before radiologists

This deep-learning system provides an automated image evaluation system to enhance the accuracy of early lung cancer diagnosis that could lead to earlier treatment.

The deep-learning system also produced fewer false positives and fewer false negatives, which could lead to fewer unnecessary follow-up procedures and fewer missed tumors, if it were used in a clinical setting.

'Radiologists generally examine hundreds of two-dimensional images or 'slices' in a single CT scan but this new machine learning system views the lungs in a huge, single three-dimensional image,' said study co-author Dr. Mozziyar Etemadi, a research assistant professor of anesthesiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and of engineering at McCormick School of Engineering.

His lab is based inside one of the intensive care units at Northwestern Memorial Hospital to allow seamless communication among engineers and nurses, physicians and other care providers.

'This area of research is incredibly important, as lung cancer has the highest rate of mortality among all cancers, and there are many challenges in the way of broad adoption of lung cancer screening,' said Shravya Shetty, technical lead at Google.

However, high error rates and the limited access to these screenings mean that many lung cancers are usually detected at advanced stages, when they are hard to treat.

The ability to collaborate with world-class scientists at Google, using their unprecedented computing capabilities to create something with the potential to save tens of thousands of lives a year is truly a privilege.'

Artificial intelligence diagnoses lung cancer

Artificial intelligence is better than specialist doctors at diagnosing lung cancer, a US study suggests.

The study focused on lung cancer, which kills more people - 1.8 million a year - than any other type of cancer.

The first step was to train the computer software with 42,290 CT lung scans from nearly 15,000 patients.

It was more effective than the radiologists when examining a single CT scan and was equally effective when doctors had multiple scans to go on.

The results, in Nature Medicine, showed the AI could boost cancer detection by 5% while also cutting false-positives (people falsely diagnosed with cancer) by 11%.

Similarly to how we learn from experience, deep learning algorithms perform a task repeatedly, each time tweaking it a little to improve accuracy.

'Detecting cancer early, when treatment is more likely to be successful, is one of the most powerful ways of improving survival, and developing inexpensive technology which isn't invasive could play an important role.

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