AI News, 19 Artificial Intelligence Technologies To Look For In 2019 artificial intelligence
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Weekly Brief 19 - Friday 10 May 2019
Maintenance will be taking place on the Making Tax Digital platform over the coming days - as a result, some services will be unavailable from 4pm on Saturday 11 May until 4pm on Monday 13 May. Payments can be made as normal throughout this period.
Following the increase to wage rates on 1 April, government is encouraging workers who may be at risk of not being paid correctly to speak to their employer or fill in an online complaints form at GOV.UK. THE SMALL BIZ WEEK IN REVIEW
Wednesday Amid speculation that the Chancellor Philip Hammond is considering axing the current fuel duty freeze, FSB urged the Government to consider the impact this move could have on small firms.
Mike Cherry said, 'against a backdrop of unprecedented political uncertainty, the Government's commitment to extending the fuel duty freeze at the last Budget was hugely welcomed by small firms.
Thursday FSB unveiled its small business plan for Europe on Thursday ahead of European Elections on the 23 May. FSB urged MEPs to look beyond continuing Brexit uncertainty and take the lead in implementing a small business plan that will unlock the potential of Europe's 23.8 million small businesses.
Advocacy Craig Beaumont is quoted in today's FT, arguing that - while the Government is right to tackle low pay - ministers need to do so in a way that protects entrepreneurs at a time of uncertainty.
United States: Artificial Intelligence And Autonomous Systems Legal Update (1Q19)
global position by directing federal agencies to prioritize investments in AI,5 interpreted by many observers to be a response to China's recent efforts to claim a leadership position in AI research and development.6 Observers particularly noted that many other countries preceded the United States in rolling out national AI strategy.7 In an apparent response to these concerns, the Trump administration warned in rolling out the campaign that 'as the pace of AI innovation increase around the world, we cannot sit idly by and presume that our leadership is guaranteed.'8 To secure U.S. leadership, the EO prioritizes five key areas: AI developers will need to pay close attention to the executive branch's response to standards setting.
The Director of NIST, shall 'issue a plan for Federal engagement in the development of technical standards and related tools in support of reliable, robust, and trustworthy systems that use AI technologies' with participation from relevant agencies as the Secretary of Commerce shall determine.16 The plan is intended to include 'Federal priority needs for standardization of AI systems development and deployment,' the identification of 'standards development entities in which Federal agencies should seek membership with the goal of establishing or supporting United States technical leadership roles,' and 'opportunities for and challenges to United States leadership in standardization related to AI technologies.'17 Observers have criticized the EO for its lack of actual funding commitments, precatory language, and failure to address immigration issues for AI firms looking to retain foreign students and hire AI specialists.18 For example, unlike the Chinese government's commitment of $150 billion for AI prioritization, the EO adds no specific expenditures, merely encouraging certain offices to 'budget' for AI research and development.19 To begin to close this gap, on April 11, 2019, Congressmen Dan Lipinski (IL-3) and Tom Reed (NY-23) introduced the Growing Artificial Intelligence Through Research (GrAITR) Act to establish a
Highlights include the White House's charting of a Select Committee on AI under the National Science and Technology Council, the Department of Energy's efforts to develop supercomputers, the Department of Transportation's efforts to integrate automated driving systems, and the Food and Drug Administration's efforts to assess AI implementation in medical research.23 On April 10, 2019, a number of Senate Democrats introduced the Algorithmic Accountability Act, which 'requires companies to study and fix flawed computer algorithms that result in inaccurate, unfair, biased or discriminatory decisions impacting Americans.'24 The bill stands to be the United States Congress's first serious foray into the regulation of AI and the first legislative attempt in the United States to impose regulation on AI systems in general, as opposed to regulating a specific activity, such as autonomous vehicles.
The bill would allow regulators to take a closer look at any '[h]igh-risk automated decision system'-those that involve 'privacy or security of personal information of consumers[,]' 'sensitives aspects of [consumers'] lives, such as their work performance, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, behavior, location, or movements[,]' 'a significant number of consumers regarding race [and several other sensitive topics],' or 'systematically monitors a large, publicly accessible physical place[.]'27 For these 'high-risk' topics, regulators would be permitted to conduct an 'impact assessment' and examine a host of proprietary aspects relating to the system.28 Additional regulations will be needed to give these key terms meaning but, for now, the bill is a harbinger for AI regulation that identifies key areas of concern for lawmakers.
The bill has some teeth-it would give the Federal Trade Commission the authority to enforce and regulate these audit procedures and requirements-but does not provide for a private right of action or enforcement by state attorneys general.29 While the political viability of the bill is questionable, Senate Republicans have also recently renewed their scrutiny of technology companies for alleged political bias.30 At a minimum, companies operating in this space should certainly anticipate further congressional action on this subject in the near future, and proactively consider how their own 'high-risk' systems may raise concerns related to bias.
On March 13, 2019, the National Security, International Development and Monetary Policy Subcommittee heard testimony from Gary Shiffman, founder and CEO of an AI security firm, who urged the government to implement AI to combat financial crimes, money laundering, trafficking and terrorism, noting that in order to advance this type of AI technology, the government forms an important, and perhaps necessary, part in making the AI systems by providing training data sets.32 In due course, companies whose products require access to public datasets may well be able to take advantage of emerging partnerships between the federal government and private sector.
The report includes recommendations for improving workplace diversity (such as publishing harassment and discrimination transparency reports, changing hiring practices to maximize diversity, and being transparent around hiring, compensation, and promotion practices) and recommendations for addressing bias and discrimination in AI systems (such as implementing rigorous testing across the lifecycle of AI systems).38 In companion bills SB-5527 and HB-1655, introduced on January 23, 2019, Washington State lawmakers drafted a comprehensive piece of legislation aimed at governing the use of automated decision systems by state agencies, including the use of automated decision-making in the triggering of automated weapon systems.39 In addition to addressing the fact that eliminating algorithmic-based bias requires consideration of fairness, accountability, and transparency, the bills also include a private right of action.40 According to the bills'
sponsors, automated decision systems are rapidly being adopted to make or assist in core decisions in a variety of government and business functions, including criminal justice, health care, education, employment, public benefits, insurance, and commerce,41 and are often unregulated and deployed without public knowledge.42 Under the new law, in using an automated decision system, an agency would be prohibited from discriminating against an individual, or treating an individual less favorably than another on the basis of one or more of a list of factors such as race, national origin, sex, or age.43 Currently, the bills remain in Committee.44 In the UK, the world's first Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation will partner with the UK Cabinet Office's Race Disparity Unit to explore potential for bias in algorithms in crime and justice, financial services, recruitment and local government.45 The UK government explained that this investigation was necessary because of the risk that human bias will be reflected in the recommendations used in the algorithms.46 Police departments often use predictive algorithms for various other functions, such as to help identify suspects.
While such technologies can be useful, there is increasing awareness building with regard to the risk of biases and inaccuracies.47 In a paper released on February 13, researchers at the AI Now Institute, a research center that studies the social impact of artificial intelligence, found that police across the United States may be training crime-predicting AIs on falsified 'dirty' data,48 calling into question the validity of predictive policing systems and other criminal risk-assessment tools that use training sets consisting of historical data.49 In some cases, police departments had a culture of purposely manipulating or falsifying data under intense political pressure to bring down official crime rates.
The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Safely Ensuring Lives Future Deployment and Research In Vehicle Evolution (SELF DRIVE) Act51 by voice vote in September 2017, but its companion bill (the American Vision for Safer Transportation through Advancement of Revolutionary Technologies (AV START) Act),52 stalled in the Senate as a result of holds from Democratic senators who expressed concerns that the proposed legislation remains immature and underdeveloped in that it 'indefinitely' preempts state and local safety regulations even in the absence of federal standards.53 So far, there have been no attempts to reintroduce the bill in the new congressional session, and even if efforts to reintroduce it are ultimately successful, the measure may not be enough to assuage safety concerns as long as it lacks an enforceable federal safety framework.
group of automakers, the 5G Automotive Association, now counts more than 100 members who argue that C-V2X is preferable to Wi-Fi in terms of security, reliability, range and reaction time.63 However, in April 2019, the European Commission proposed a legal act to regulate so-called 'Cooperative-Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS),' backing the ITS-G5 Wi-Fi standard.64 By contrast, in the United States, the AV 3.0 guidelines acknowledged that private sector companies were already researching and testing C-V2X technology alongside the Dedicated Short-Range Communication ('DSRC')-based deployments, but also cautioned that while V2X is an important complementary technology that is expected to enhance the benefits of automation at all levels, 'it should not be and realistically cannot be a precondition to the deployment of automated vehicles' and that DoT 'does not promote any particular technology over another.'65 This approach appears to be in line with the DoT's overarching desire to remain 'technologically neutral' to avoid interfering with innovation.
Nonetheless, in December 2018, the DoT announced that it was seeking public comment on V2X communications,66 noting that 'there have been developments in core aspects of the communication technologies needed for V2X, which have raised questions about how the Department can best ensure that the safety and mobility benefits of connected vehicles are achieved without interfering with the rapid technological innovations occurring in both the automotive and telecommunications industries,' including in both C-V2X and '5G' communications, which 'may, or may not, offer both advantages and disadvantages over DSRC.'67 Meanwhile, AVs built in China-which has set a goal of 10% of vehicles reaching Level 4/5 autonomy by 2030-will support the C-V2X standard, and will likely be developed in an ecosystem of infrastructure, technical standards and regulatory requirements distinct from those of their European counterparts.68 In addition to setting a national DSRC standard, China also plans to cover 90% of the country with C-V2X sensors by 2020.69 In 2017, the Chinese government called for more than 100 domestic standards for AVs and other internet-connected vehicles.
In connection with the implementation of its General Data Privacy Rules ('GDPR') in 2018, the EU recently released a report from its 'High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence': the EU 'Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI' ('Guidelines').73 The Guidelines lay out seven ethical principles 'that must be respected in the development, deployment, and use of AI systems': In addition to laying out these principles, the Guidelines highlight the importance of implementing a 'large-scale pilot with partners' and of 'building international consensus for human-centric AI.'74 Specifically, the Commission will launch a pilot phase of guideline implementation in Summer 2019, working with 'like-minded partners such as Japan, Canada or Singapore.'75 The EU also intends to 'continue to play an active role in international discussions and initiatives including the G7 and G20.'76 While the Guidelines do not appear to create any binding regulation on stakeholders in the EU, their further development and evolution will likely shape the final version of future regulation throughout the EU.
In an interview discussing DARPA's AI-infused drones that would be used to map combatants and civilians in the field, the agency discussed how ethics is informing its development and implementation of AI systems.78 DARPA highlighted that they met with ethicists before advancing technical development of the technology.79 The United Nations Secretary-General Ant�nio Guterres has urged restriction on the development of lethal autonomous weapons systems, or LAWS,80 arguing that machines with the power and discretion to take lives without human involvement are politically unacceptable, morally repugnant and should be prohibited by international law.81 Subsequently, Japan pledged that it will not develop fully automated weapons systems.82 A group of member states-including the UK, United States, Russia, Israel and Australia-are reportedly opposed to a preemptive ban in the absence of any international agreement on the characteristics of autonomous weapons.83 Footnote 1
11 Artificial Intelligence Movies You’ll Definitely Love To Watch
From the classic big assembly machinery to supercomputers with incredible operating systems all the way down to human-like robots, developments of this century have changed our lives in an unmeasurable way and, judging by the rate of these developments, it’s safe to say we’ve only seen the beginning.
Therefore, taking some time to dive into philosophical and moral implications of AI, like in Leigh Whannell’s 2018 science fiction horror film Upgrade, and to truly think about what this constant impact between humanity and technology means, is the primary trait of any self-respecting developer… thankfully most Artificial Intelligence movies are thought-provoking.
And, as we are obsessed with movies set in the future, especially the ones where technology is the lead lady, we’ve decided to create the ultimate list of AI films spanned through the decades that reflect the everchanging spectrum of our emotions regarding the machines we have created: 1.
Metropolis Let’s start at the beginning, and there’s no more grandiose beginning that Fritz Lang’s 1927 epic expressionist Sci-Fi. With groundbreaking visuals (for its time), and a plot that has stood out the test of time, this film has influenced it all: from Blade Runner to Black Mirror, you can see the echo of its ideas in almost every content created after.
Mainly because this is the first serious Sci-Fi film, giving us not only very advanced machinery to look at (which by the way changed our collective vision of what the future looked like), but also a biting social commentary of the implications of human interaction with machines, inspiring and molding our attitude towards many later real and imaginary AI creations to come.
Fast forward to 1968, when HAL 9000, the epitome of the “evil computer”, decides to kill two astronauts because he is unable to reconcile the order to conceal the true nature of its mission with its self-described incapacity to fail: “No ‘9000’ computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information”.
The film never explains where that (almost) hatred comes from but, even when the machine takes on a human form, the differences between him and humans are quite clear, and not just because of its constant disregard at the idea of maintaining a single unalterable form.
On the other hand, much like Skynet, VIKI is a rebellious and quite dangerous supercomputer, the difference is VIKI’s logic didn’t turn her against us to protect itself, but because it prioritized society’s interests over the individuals, this robot honestly believes it can only serve humanity by ruling it.
There he finds a space-cruise filled with incredibly unhealthy humans and through sheer force of will (something usually reserved for humans), and the discovery of a small plant, takes the feeble population of the cruise back to Earth.
This is not some dystopian warning of the evils of technology, but another view on the lovable AI trend that provides a clear examination on the implications of how we relate to it and how it will change the way we relate to each other. The robot here is a particular hybrid between some of the other AI’s we’ve discussed on this list.
The film frames AI in an optimistic utopian border, but it still reminds us that technology has the capacity of running amok when unchecked or when created under dubious ethical circumstances, as the film leaves clear that a lot of lonely people are falling in love and creating friendships with seemingly sentient operating systems that leave them completely heartbroken when they leave.
At the end of it all, the idea that computer system can somehow become self-aware and decide that we should be completely destroyed or ruled over, as we cannot take care of ourselves it’s a common trope, but in real life all the AI attacks we have suffered have been for very no threatening stuff.
- On 22. januar 2021
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